Peer-Reviewed Papers

Easterly, William, Progress by Consent: Adam Smith as Development Economist, Review of Austrian Economics, September 2019.

Easterly, William, Review of Walter Scheidel, The Great Leveler: Violence and the History of Inequality from the Stone Age to the Twenty-First Century, Journal of Economic Literature (forthcoming full length article).

Daruich, Diego, William Easterly, and Ariell Reshef, The surprising instability of export specializations, Journal of Development Economics, March 2019, Vol. 137: 36-65.

Easterly, William, Development in a Time of Xenophobia, Journal of International Affairs, 70, no. Special Anniversary Issue, 2017.

Easterly, William, and Ross Levine, The European Origins of Economic Development, Journal of Economic Growth, 2016.

Easterly, William, Response to reviewers (Angus Deaton, Jack Goldstone, and Loren Lomasky) Symposium on book by William Easterly, “The Tyranny of Experts,” Review of Austrian Economics, July 2015. 

Berger, Daniel, Alejandro Corvalan, William Easterly, Shanker Satyanath, Do superpower interventions have long and short term consequences for democracy?Journal of Comparative Economics, 41, no. 1 (2013): 22-34.

Berger, Daniel, William Easterly, Nathan Nunn, Shanker Satyanath, Commercial Imperialism? Political Influence During the Cold WarAmerican Economic Review, (April 2013), 103(2): 863-96. Supporting data set.

William Easterly, Democratic Accountability in Development: The Double Standard, Social Research, 77, no. 4 (Winter 2010),  pp. 1075

William Easterly and Claudia Williamson, Rhetoric versus Reality: The Best and Worst of Aid Agency PracticesWorld Development, Vol. 39 (2011), No. 11, pp. 1930-1949.

Comin, Diego, William Easterly, and Erick Gong, Was the Wealth of Nations Determined in 1000 B.C.?American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, no. 2 (2010): 65-97.

Alesina, Alberto, William Easterly and Janina Matuszeski, Artificial States, Journal of the European Economic Association, 9, no. 2, (April 2011): 246-277.

Empirics of Strategic Interdependence: The Case of the Racial Tipping PointBE Journal of Macroeconomics: Contributions, 9, no. 1, (2009): Article 11.

Can the West Save Africa?Journal of Economic Literature, 47, no. 2, (June 2009): 373-44.

How the Millennium Development Goals are Unfair to AfricaWorld Development, 37, no. 1, (January 2009): 26-35.

Institutions: Top Down or Bottom Up?American Economic Review, 98, no. 2, (May 2008): 95-99

Easterly, William and Tobias Pfutze, Where Does the Money Go? Best and Worst Practices in Foreign AidJournal of Economic Perspectives, 22, no.2, ( Spring 2008).

Easterly William, Timothy Irwin and Luis Serven, Walking Up the Down Escalator: Public Investment and Fiscal StabilityThe World Bank Research Observer, 23, no. 1, (Spring 2008): 37-56.

Inequality Does Cause UnderdevelopmentJournal of Development Economics, 84, no.2, (November 2007): 755-776.  Supporting dataset.

Are Aid Agencies improving?Economic Policy, 22, no. 52, (October 2007): 633-678.

Was Development Assistance a Mistake?American Economic Review, 97, no.2, (May 2007): 328-332.

Planners vs. Searchers in Foreign AidAsian Development Review, 23, no. 2, (2006): 1-35.

Reliving the 50s: the Big Push, Poverty Traps, and Takeoffs in Economic DevelopmentJournal of Economic Growth, 11, no.2, (December 2006):  289-318.

Easterly, William, Michael Woolcock and Jozef Ritzen, Social Cohesion, Institutions and GrowthEconomics and Politics, 18, no. 2, (July 2006).

Easterly, William, Roberta Gatti and Sergio Kurlat, Development, Democracy, and Mass KillingsJournal of Economic Growth, 11, no.2, (June 2006): 129-156.

An Identity Crisis? Examining IMF Financial ProgrammingWorld Development, 34 no. 6, (June 2006).

The Big Push Déjà Vu: A Review of Jeffrey Sachs’s The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our TimeJournal of Economic Literature, 44, no. 1 (March 2006): 289-318.

What did structural adjustment adjust? The association of policies and growth with repeated IMF and World Bank adjustment loansJournal of Development Economics, 76, (February 2005): 1-22.

Easterly, William, Ross Levine, and David Roodman, New Data, new doubts: A Comment on Burnside and Dollar’s Aid, Policies, and GrowthAmerican Economic Review, 94, no. 3, (June 2004).

NAFTA and Convergence in North America: High Expectations, Big Events, Little TimeEconomia, 4, (Fall 2003): 1-53.

Can Foreign Aid Buy Growth?Journal of Economic Perspectives, 17, no.3, (Summer 2003): 23-48.

Alesina, Alberto, Arvind Devleeschauwer, Easterly, William, Sergio Kurlat, and Romain Wacziarg, FractionalizationJournal of Economic Growth, 8, no. 2,  (2003): 155-194.

Devarajan, Shanta, William Easterly, and Howard Pack, Low Investment is not the Constraint on African DevelopmentEconomic Development and Cultural Change, 51, no. 3,  (April 2003): 547-571.

Easterly, William and Ross Levine, Tropics, germs, and crops: the role of endowments in economic developmentJournal of Monetary Economics, 50, no. 1,  (January 2003): 3-39

Devarajan, Shanta, William Easterly, and Howard Pack, The Cartel of Good Intentions: The Problem of Bureaucracy in Foreign AidJournal of Policy Reform, 5, no. 4, (2003): 1-28.

How did the heavily indebted poor countries become heavily indebted? Reviewing 2 decades of debt reliefWorld Development, 30, no. 10, (October 2002): 1677 – 1696.

The Middle Class Consensus and Economic DevelopmentJournal of Economic Growth, 6, no. 4, (December 2001): 317-336.

Easterly, William and Ross Levine, It’s Not Factor Accumulation: Stylized Facts and Growth Models, World Bank Economic Review, 15, no. 2, (2001).

Easterly, William and Allan Drazen, Do Crises Induce Reform? Simple Empirical Tests of Conventional WisdomEconomics and Politics, 13, no. 2, (July 2001): 129-158.

The Lost Decades: Explaining Developing Countries’ Stagnation in Spite of Policy Reform 1980-1998Journal of Economic Growth, 6, no. 2, (June 2001): 135-157.

Can Institutions Resolve Ethnic Conflict?Economic Development and Cultural Change, 49, no. 4, (2001): 697-706.

Growth Implosions and Debt Explosions: Do Growth Slowdowns Explain Public Debt Crises?Contributions to Macroeconomics, 1, no. 1, (2001).

Easterly, William and Stanley Fischer, Inflation and the PoorJournal of Money, Credit, and Banking, 1, (May 2001): 159-178.

Devarajan, Shanta, William Easterly, and Howard Pack, Is investment in Africa too high or too low?Journal of African Economies, 10, (2001): 81-108.

Alesina, Alberto, Reza Baqir and William Easterly, Redistributive Government EmploymentJournal of Urban Economics, 48, no. 2, (2000): 219-241.

Easterly, William and Aart Kraay, Small states, small problems? Income, growth, and volatility in small statesWorld Development, 28, no. 11, (November 2000): 2013-2027.

Easterly, William, Roumeen Islam and Joseph Stiglitz, Shaken and Stirred: Explaining Growth VolatilityAnnual World Bank Conference on Development Economics, (2000).

The Ghost of Financing Gap: Testing the Growth Model of the International Financial InstitutionsJournal of Development Economics, 60, no. 2, (December 1999): 423-438. (selected for summary of top 100 annual journal articles in Economic Intuition)

Alesina, Alberto, Reza Baqir and William Easterly, Public Goods and Ethnic DivisionsQuarterly Journal of Economics, CXIV, no. 4, (November 1999): 1243-1284.

Dollar, David and William Easterly, The Search for the Key: Aid, Investment, and Policies in AfricaJournal of African Economies, 8, (1999): 546-577,

Life During GrowthJournal of Economic Growth, 4,  no. 3, (September 1999): 239-275.  Supporting dataset.

When is fiscal adjustment an illusion?, Economic Policy, 14, no. 28, (April 1999): 55-86.  (recieved ANBAR Electronic Intelligence Citation of Excellence)

Bruno, Michael and William Easterly, Inflation Crises and Long-run GrowthJournal of Monetary Economics, 41, (February 1998):  3-26. (selected for summary of top 100 annual journal articles in Economic Intuition).  Supporting dataset.

Africa’s Growth Tragedy: Policies and Ethnic DivisionsQuarterly Journal of Economics, CXII, no. 4, (1997): 1203-1250. Supporting dataset.

Easterly, William, Peter Montiel and Norman Loayza, Has Latin America’s Post-reform Growth Been Disappointing? Journal of International Economics, 43, no. 3-4, (1997): 287-311.

Easterly, William and Ross Levine, Troubles with the Neighbors: Africa’s Problem, Africa’s OpportunityJournal of African Economies, 7, no.1, (1997): 120-142.

Easterly, William and Holger Wolf, The Wild Ride of the RubleInternational Journal of Finance and Economics, 1, no. 4, (October 1996), 251-61.

Bruno, Michael and William Easterly, Inflation’s Children: Tales of Crises that Beget ReformsAmerican Economic Review, 86, no. 2, (May 1996): 213-217.

When is Stabilization Expansionary? Economic Policy, 11, no. 22, (April 1996): 65-107.

Easterly, William and Stanley Fischer, The Soviet Economic DeclineWorld Bank Economic Review, 9, no. 3, (1995): 341-371.

Easterly, William and Paolo Mauro and Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel, Money Demand and Seignorage – Maximizing InflationJournal of Money, Credit and Banking, 27, no. 2, (May 1995): 583-603.

The Mystery of Growth: Shocks, Policies, and Surprises in Old and New Theories of Economic GrowthThe Singapore Economic Review, (1995).

Easterly, William and Paulo Viera da Cuhna, Financing the Storm: Russia’s Macroeconomic CrisisEconomics of Transition, 2, no. 4, (May 1995): 443-465.

Economic Stagnation, Fixed Factors, and Policy ThresholdsJournal of Monetary Economics, 33, no. 3, (June 1994): 525-557.

Easterly, William and Michael Kremer, Lant Pritchett, and Lawrence Summers, Good Policy or Good Luck? Country Growth Performance and Temporary ShocksJournal of Monetary Economics, 32, (December 1993).

Easterly, William and Sergio Rebelo, Fiscal Policy and Economic Growth: an Empirical InvestigationJournal of Monetary Economics, 32, no. 3, (December 1993): 417 – 458.

Easterly, William and Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel, Fiscal Deficits and Macroeconomic Performance in Developing CountriesWorld Bank Research Observer, 8, no. 2, (July 1993): 211-237.

How much do Distortions Affect Growth? Journal of Monetary Economics, 32, no.2, (November 1993): 187-212.

Easterly, William and Sergio Rebelo, Marginal Income Tax Rates and Economic Growth in Developing CountriesEuropean Economic Review, 37, no. 2-3, (1993): 409-417.

Searching for the Secrets of GrowthRevista de Analisis Economico, Special Issue, (June 1993).

How Much Does Policy Affect Growth?Cuadernos de Economia, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, 29, no. 87, (August 1992): 295-305.

Easterly, William and Stanley Fischer, The Economics of the Government Budget ConstraintWorld Bank Research Observor, 5, no. 2, (July 1990).


Working Papers

Edited Books

What Works in Development? Thinking Big and Thinking Small, ed. Jessica Cohen and William Easterly, 2009

Reinventing Foreign Aid, ed. William Easterly, 2008

The Limits of Stabilization, ed. William Easterly and Luis Serven, 2003

Public Sector Deficits and Macroeconomic Performance, ed. William Easterly, Carlos Alfredo Rodríguez, and Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel, 1995


Book Chapters

The European origins of economic development, (with Ross Levine), in The Long Economic and Political Shadow of History Volume 1. A Global View, Center for Economic Policy Research (CEPR) Press, edited by Stelios Michalopoulos and Elias Papaioannou, 2017 

African Export Successes: Surprises, Stylized Facts, and Explanations, (with Ariell Reshef) in African Successes: Modernization and Development, University of Chicago Press for NBER, edited by Sebastian Edwards, Simon Johnson, and David N. Weil,  2016.

Fiscal Policy, Debt Crises, and Economic Growth, in Economic Policies in Emerging-Market Economies, Central Bank of Chileedited by Ricardo J. Caballero and Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel, 2015

The Role of Growth Slowdowns and Forecast Errors in Public Debt Crises, in Fiscal Policy after the Financial Crisis, National Bureau of Economic Research Conference Volume, University of Chicago Press, edited by Alberto Alesina and Francesco Giavazzi, 2013

Is the Brain Drain Good for Africa?, (with Yaw Nyarko), in Skilled Migration Today, Council on Foreign Relations, edited by Jagdish Bhagwati and Gordon Hanson, 2009

The Indomitable in Pursuit of the Inexplicable, in Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at Thirty Years of the World Development Report, World Bank, 2009

Freedom and Development, in Democracy and Development, KIT Publishers, edited by Bernard Berendsen, 2008

Globalization, Poverty, and All That: Factor Endowment versus Productivity Views, in Globalization and Poverty, edited by Anne Harrison, 2007

Development Success: May History Breed Humility, in Economic Growth with Equity – Challenges for Latin America, Edited by Ricardo French-Davis and Jose Luis Machinea, 2007

Globalization, Entry for Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, October 2006

The World Bank and Low-Income Countries: The Escalating Agenda, in Rescuing the World Bank: A CGD Working Report and Selected Essays, Center for Global Development, 2006

Freedom versus Collectivism in Foreign Aid, in Economic Freedom of the World: 2006 Annual Report

National policies and economic growth: a reappraisal, in Handbook of Economic Growth, edited by Philippe Aghion and Steven Durlauf, 2005

The rich have markets, the poor have bureaucrats, in Globalization: What’s New, edited by Michael Weinstein, 2005

Growth in Ethiopia: Retrospect and Prospect, mimeograph, 2004

Channels from Globalization to Inequality: Productivity World versus Factor World, in Brookings Trade Forum 2004, edited by Susan M. Collins and Carol Graham, 2004

The effect of World Bank and IMF Programs on Poverty, in Managing Currency Crises in Emerging Markets, an NBER Conference Report, edited by Michael P. Dooley and Jeffrey A. Frankel, 2003

The Political Economy of Growth Without Development: A Case Study of Pakistan, in In Search of Prosperity: Analytic Narratives of Growth, edited by Dani Rodrik, 2003

It’s not factor accumulation: stylized facts and growth models, (with Ross Levine), in Economic Growth: Sources, Trends and Cycles, Central Bank of Chile, edited by Norman Loayza and Raimundo Soto, 2002

Evaluating Government Net Worth, (with David Yuravlivker), in Colombia and Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela, Government at risk: Contingent liabilities and fiscal risk, 2002

Volatility and macroeconomic paradigms for rich and poor countries, (with Roumeen Islam and Joseph Stiglitz), in Advances in Macroeconomic Theory, 2001

The Joys and Sorrows of Openness: a Review Essay, in The Determinants of Economic Growth, edited by M.S. Oosterbaan, Thijs de Ruyter van Steveninck, and N. van der  Windt, 2000

Why is Africa Marginal in the World Economy? in Can South and Southern Africa Become Globally Competitive Economies?, edited by Gavin Maasdorp, 1996

Explaining Miracles: Growth regressions meet the Gang of Four, in Growth Theories in Light of the East Asian Experience, edited by Takatoshi Ito and Anne O. Kruger, 1995

Surprises, policies and economic growth, in Crecimiento Economico, edited by Monica Aparicio and  William Easterly, 1995

Growth Prospects for the Ex-Soviet Republics: Lessons from Soviet Historical Experience, (with Stanley Fischer), in Economics in a Changing World, Volume 1, System Transformation: Easterly and Western Assessments, edited by Abel Aganbegyan, Oleg Bogomolov, and Michael Kaser, 1994

Policy, Technology Adoption and Growth, (with Robert King, Ross Levine, and Sergio T. Rebelo) in Economic Growth and the Structure of Long-term Development, edited by Robert M. Solow and Luigi L. Pasinetti, 1994

Fiscal Adjustment and Macroeconomic Performance: A Synthesis (with K Schmidt-Hebbel), in Public Sector Deficits and Macroeconomic Performance, edited by William Easterly, Carlos Alfredo Rodriguez, and Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel, 1994

Colombia: Avoiding Crises through Fiscal Policy, in Public Sector Deficits and Macroeconomic Performance, edited by William Easterly, Carlos Alfredo Rodriguez, and Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel, 1994

Distortionary Policies and Growth in Socialist Economies, in Reforming Central and Eastern European Economies, edited by Vittorio Corbo, Fabrizio Coricelli, and Jan Bossak, 1992

Endogenous Growth in Developing Countries with Government-induced Distortions, in Adjustment Lending Revisited: Policies to Restore Growth, edited by Vittorio Corbo, Stanley Fischer and Steven Webb, 1992

La Macroeconomia del Deficit del Sector Publico: El Caso de Colombia, in Ensayos Sobre Politica Economia, 1992

Requisitos Macroeconomicos de Reforma de Politicas (Modelling the Macroeconomic Requirements of Policy Reform), (with E. C. Hwa, Piyabha Kongsamut and Jan Zizek), in Ensayos Sobre Politica Economia, 1992

La Macroeconomia del Deficit del Sector Publico: El Caso de Colombia in Estabilizacion y Crecimiento: Nuevas Lecturas de Macroeconomia Colombiana, edited by Roberto Steiner, 1991

Portfolio Effects in a CGE Model: Devaluation in a dollarized economy, in Socially Relevant Policy Analysis: Structuralist Computable General Equilibrium Models for the Developing World, edited by Lance Taylor, 1990

Fiscal adjustment and deficit financing during the debt crisis, in Dealing with the Debt Crisis, edited by Ishrat Husain and Ishac Diwan, 1989